Vol 2-1 Review Article

BCG Against COVID-19: Old Vaccine for a Novel Virus?

Elsayed Desouky1,2*

1Urology Department, Wexham Park NHS Hospital, Berkshire, UK

2Urology Department, Alexandria Main University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is overwhelming the globe. Epidemiological studies found an association between universal BCG vaccination policies in countries and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19. This review is trying to explain how a 100-year-old vaccine for tuberculosis could help fight the novel coronavirus. Moreover, it highlights possible impact on urology practice.

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Vol 2-1 Mini Review Article

Advances in Immunotherapy with Chimeric Antigen Receptor Invariant Natural Killer T cells (CAR-iNKT cells); Therapeutic Implications in Multiple Myeloma

Menelaos Papoutselis, Emmanouil Spanoudakis*

Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Division of Hematology, Alexandroupolis, Greece

In Multiple Myeloma (MM), a highly CD1d expressing tumor, defects in endogenous invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT cells) along with CD1d downregulation through epigenetic silencing in advanced relapses, promotes myeloma immune escape. Especially CD1d expression is totally lost on plasma cells from extramedullary relapses and in myeloma cell lines, showing that downregulation of CD1d on plasma cells happens when they become independent from the bone marrow microenvironment. Myeloma cells aberrantly overexpressed GM3, a glycolipid that promotes osteoclastogenesis and myeloma cell survival. A-galactosyl-ceramide, a glycolipid extracted from a marine sponge, can expand, and manipulate iNKT cell in-vivo but efforts to reverse iNKT cells defect and restore antimyeloma cytotoxicity with this agent, failed. Advanced relapses of MM patients are difficult to treat and today CAR-T cell based immunotherapeutic approaches are evolving with encouraging results. The development of CAR-iNKT cells technology can overcome restrictions of CAR-T cells and confers the ability to attack myeloma cells by two ways; the CAR receptor as long with the invariant TCR receptor in the context of CD1d.

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Vol 1-1 Short Review Article

Advances in the Study of Dengue Epidemic Spread: A Brief Overview

Sylvestre Aureliano Carvalho1*, Iraziet da Cunha Charret2#

1Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

2Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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Vol 1-1 Commentary

Commentary: Human papillomavirus types causing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in Zimbabwe

Naboth Matinhira1,2*, Nyarai D Soko2,3, Erasmus Muganda2, Clemence Chidziva1,2

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

2Harare, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Institute, 5 Weales Avenue, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

A recent publication describes both the clinical characteristics and human papillomavirus (HPV) types causing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in a Zimbabwean population. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare benign disease characterised by recurrent development of exophytic lesions of the connective tissues covering the epithelial cells of the larynx, and in some severe cases the trachea and bronchial tree. Nationwide vaccination against human papillomavirus in children prior to sexual debut has proven an efficient strategy against HPV related diseases including RRP. In this commentary, we review the recently published clinical characteristics of RRP cases in Zimbabwe. We also discuss the importance of adopting a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types causing low risk HPV in Zimbabwe as a nationwide strategy against RRP in the population.

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