Patrick M. Mutua1*, Joshua M. Mutiso2, Jemimah A. Simabuni2, Michael M. Gicheru2

1ImmunoBiologic Research and Consultancy Centre, P.O Box 295, Kibwezi, Kenya

2Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

Currently, there are 89 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in different phases of clinical trials. Twelve COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use in different countries. The Kenyan government has approved Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine and is in the process of rolling out vaccination to priority targeted groups based on the World Health Organization (WHO) roadmap for prioritizing uses of COVID-19 vaccines in the context of limited supply. Among the targeted priority groups by the Kenyan government are teachers. In January, 2021, we surveyed 380 teachers in Kinango and Samburu sub counties in Kwale county in Coast region in Kenya to determine knowledge gaps, opportunities, acceptance rates and factors influencing acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. ANOVA followed by Tukeys Post Hoc analyses were performed to determine the effect of gender and level of education on COVID-19 vaccine potential acceptance and in evaluating the effect of teaching experience and teachers age on vaccine safety. While 99.5 % of the respondents knew COVID-19 is a viral disease and were able to list three correct symptoms of the infection and that 41.1 % knew of a person who had died of COVID-19, only 34.7 % agreed they would accept to be vaccinated if the vaccine was safe. Male and female teachers with primary teacher certificate and diploma qualifications were more likely (P˂0.05) to accept to be vaccinated compared to teachers holding degrees. However, the association between vaccine acceptance among the certificate and diploma respondents was not (P˃0.05) significant. Additionally, 36.8 % of the sampled teachers knew they are targeted priority group for the COVID-19 vaccination with 92.4 % of the teachers agreeing that they needed more information on the vaccine. Among the sampled, only 12.9 % thought the vaccine was safe. Teachers aged 23-35 years and those aged 46-59 years comprising of 11.5 % and 56.1% respectively of the sampled teachers, substantially (P˃0.05) disagreed the vaccine was safe compared to teachers aged 36-45 years who formed 8.7 % of the sampled respondents. Among the interviewees, 93.1 % suggested a joint approach by the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) and Ministry of Education (MoE) in leading the COVID-19 vaccine campaign awareness. Based on these data, there is need by the government, particularly the TSC and MoE and other public health providers, to mount serious public vaccination literacy campaign in order to promote trust among Kenyan teachers and bolster voluntary COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Further, the government should seize the high COVID-19 vaccine acceptance potential among primary certificate and diploma teachers in prioritizing COVID-19 vaccine roll out among teachers. Primary school teachers should, based on WHO roadmap of sequential distribution of the vaccines, be vaccinated before the secondary school teachers because of inability to effectively keep physically distant form their learners and also due to high congestion in the institutions.

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Elsayed Desouky1,2*

1Urology Department, Wexham Park NHS Hospital, Berkshire, UK

2Urology Department, Alexandria Main University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is overwhelming the globe. Epidemiological studies found an association between universal BCG vaccination policies in countries and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19. This review is trying to explain how a 100-year-old vaccine for tuberculosis could help fight the novel coronavirus. Moreover, it highlights possible impact on urology practice.

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Menelaos Papoutselis, Emmanouil Spanoudakis*

Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Division of Hematology, Alexandroupolis, Greece

In Multiple Myeloma (MM), a highly CD1d expressing tumor, defects in endogenous invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT cells) along with CD1d downregulation through epigenetic silencing in advanced relapses, promotes myeloma immune escape. Especially CD1d expression is totally lost on plasma cells from extramedullary relapses and in myeloma cell lines, showing that downregulation of CD1d on plasma cells happens when they become independent from the bone marrow microenvironment. Myeloma cells aberrantly overexpressed GM3, a glycolipid that promotes osteoclastogenesis and myeloma cell survival. A-galactosyl-ceramide, a glycolipid extracted from a marine sponge, can expand, and manipulate iNKT cell in-vivo but efforts to reverse iNKT cells defect and restore antimyeloma cytotoxicity with this agent, failed. Advanced relapses of MM patients are difficult to treat and today CAR-T cell based immunotherapeutic approaches are evolving with encouraging results. The development of CAR-iNKT cells technology can overcome restrictions of CAR-T cells and confers the ability to attack myeloma cells by two ways; the CAR receptor as long with the invariant TCR receptor in the context of CD1d.

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Sylvestre Aureliano Carvalho1*, Iraziet da Cunha Charret2#

1Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

2Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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Naboth Matinhira1,2*, Nyarai D Soko2,3, Erasmus Muganda2, Clemence Chidziva1,2

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

2Harare, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Institute, 5 Weales Avenue, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

A recent publication describes both the clinical characteristics and human papillomavirus (HPV) types causing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in a Zimbabwean population. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare benign disease characterised by recurrent development of exophytic lesions of the connective tissues covering the epithelial cells of the larynx, and in some severe cases the trachea and bronchial tree. Nationwide vaccination against human papillomavirus in children prior to sexual debut has proven an efficient strategy against HPV related diseases including RRP. In this commentary, we review the recently published clinical characteristics of RRP cases in Zimbabwe. We also discuss the importance of adopting a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types causing low risk HPV in Zimbabwe as a nationwide strategy against RRP in the population.

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